How to Specify Learning Objectives

Various researchers have summarized how to write learning objectives. The following are four interpretations that you can use as guides in helping to write your learning objectives based on Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Level Level Attributes Keywords Questions
1: Knowledge Exhibits previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers. who, what, why, when, omit, where, which, choose, find, how, define, label, show, spell, list, match, name, relate, tell, recall, select What is …? How is …? Where is …? When did _______ happen? How did ______ happen? How would you explain …? Why did …? How would you describe …? When did …? Can you recall …? How would you show …? Can you select …? Who were the main …? Can you list three …? Which one …? Who was …?
2: Comprehension Demonstrating understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main ideas. compare, contrast, demonstrate, interpret, explain, extend, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate, summarize, show, classify How would you classify the type of …? How would you compare …? contrast …? Will you state or interpret in your own words …? How would you rephrase the meaning …? What facts or ideas show …? What is the main idea of …? Which statements support …? Can you explain what is happening . . . what is meant . . .? What can you say about …? Which is the best answer …? How would you summarize …?
3: Application Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way. apply, build, choose, construct, develop, interview, make use of, organize, experiment with, plan, select, solve, utilize, model, identify How would you use …? What examples can you find to …? How would you solve _______ using what you have learned …? How would you organize _______ to show …? How would you show your understanding of …? What approach would you use to …? How would you apply what you learned to develop …? What other way would you plan to …? What would result if …? Can you make use of the facts to …? What elements would you choose to change …? What facts would you select to show …? What questions would you ask in an interview with …?
4: Analysis Examining and breaking information into parts by identifying motives or causes; making inferences and finding evidence to support generalizations. analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, discover, dissect, divide, examine, inspect, simplify, survey, take part in, test for, distinguish, list, distinction, theme, relationships, function, motive, inference, assumption, conclusion What are the parts or features of …? How is _______ related to …? Why do you think …? What is the theme …? What motive is there …? Can you list the parts …? What inference can you make …? What conclusions can you draw …? How would you classify …? How would you categorize …? Can you identify the difference parts …? What evidence can you find …? What is the relationship between …? Can you make a distinction between …? What is the function of …? What ideas justify …?
5: Synthesis Compiling information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. build, choose, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, estimate, formulate, imagine, invent, make up, originate, plan, predict, propose, solve, solution, suppose, discuss, modify, change, original, improve, adapt, minimize, maximize, delete, theorize, elaborate, test, improve, happen, change What changes would you make to solve …? How would you improve …? What would happen if …? Can you elaborate on the reason …? Can you propose an alternative …? Can you invent …? How would you adapt ________ to create a different …? How could you change (modify) the plot (plan) …? What could be done to minimize (maximize) …? What way would you design …? What could be combined to improve (change) …? Suppose you could _______ what would you do …? How would you test …? Can you formulate a theory for …? Can you predict the outcome if …? How would you estimate the results for …? What facts can you compile …? Can you construct a model that would change …? Can you think of an original way for the …?
6: Evaluation Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. award, choose, conclude, criticize, decide, defend, determine, dispute, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, compare, mark, rate, recommend, rule on, select, agree, interpret, explain, appraise, prioritize, opinion, ,support, importance, criteria, prove, disprove, assess, influence, perceive, value, estimate, influence, deduct Do you agree with the actions …? with the outcomes …? What is your opinion of …? How would you prove …? disprove …? Can you assess the value or importance of …? Would it be better if …? Why did they (the character) choose …? What would you recommend …? How would you rate the …? What would you cite to defend the actions …? How would you evaluate …? How could you determine …? What choice would you have made …? What would you select …? How would you prioritize …? What judgment would you make about …? Based on what you know, how would you explain …? What information would you use to support the view …? How would you justify …? What data was used to make the conclusion …? Why was it better that …? How would you prioritize the facts …? How would you compare the ideas …? people …?
From: UMUC
Bloom’s Ranking of Thinking Skills
Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
List, Name, Identify, Show, Define, Recognize, Recall, State, Visualize Summarize, Explain, Interpret, Describe, Compare, Paraphrase, Differentiate, Demonstrate, Classify Solve, Illustrate, Calculate, Use, Interpret, Relate, Manipulate, Apply, Modify Analyze, Organize, Deduce, Contrast, Compare, Distinguish, Discuss, Plan, Devise Design, Hypothesize, Support, Schematize, Write, Report, Justify Evaluate, Choose, Estimate, Judge, Defend, Criticize
From: Stewards

Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy

contruction wheel


Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy.

©2001 St. Edward’s University Center for Teaching Excellence.


From: GA Tech